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How shareholders get dividends in the stock market: An overview
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How shareholders get dividends in the stock market: An overview

Shareholders often get part of the profit from the company they buy the stock from it. Are you planning to buy stock in a company and perhaps wondering how you will get a dividend from the company?

In the stock market, you have to be careful while buying stock and deciding regarding the company you are investing in it. We will provide you with an overview of how this dividend is distributed among the shareholders, how you can ensure your payment and the fundamental thing you need to bear in mind while buying a stock.

Shareholders are the company’s owners, and it is the company’s liability to make sure that you are getting the dividend and in the same proportion as other shareholders. So before getting confused about all these processes, let us help you get the correct information and knowledge regarding dividends in the stock market.

What is a dividend, and how does it work?

It is expected from the company to pay the profit or reward to the shareholders on the proportion of their shares. Dividend refers to the profit or reward that a company shares with its shareholders after paying the creditors first. There is no legal binding that the company is obliged to pay a dividend, but it’s quite a universal rule that the company shares a part of its shareholders’ profit.

Typically, the company’s board of directors declares dividends and the time, manner of paying them. Now, remember the thing while you are in the business; the company will pay the creditors first. And you will get dividends if only the company is not in shortage of cash and the company is not thinking of reinvestments.

Example of dividend

Let us illustrate the whole thing with an example. Suppose you and two of your partners started a business company where each of you invested an amount of 5000$ for buying some products. So, the net cash is 15000$. After a year, your company sold the products for 21000$ making a profit of 6000$.

Now the decision about this 21000$ is the fact. If you decide to reinvest the whole amount of money and profit, there will be no dividend here. Suppose you chose to reinvest 18000$ in the business and share the rest among you three.

So, where is the dividend here? If you three share the 3000$ from the profit and decide to take it home, then here comes the dividend. As you three invested the same amount, the 3000$ will be distributed among you three (shareholders) proportionately. So, the profit you get(1000$) is the dividend, and the rest 18000$ is the “Retained Earning.”

Types of dividend

Types of Dividends

If you are interested in exploring how all these things work, you should know how many faces a dividend might have. So let’s take a look! First, the types of dividends can be classified into two- based on the payment mode and the time of payment.

  1. By mode of payment

Cash dividend

It is a kind of payment of the company from its profit in the form of cash. Usually, a company sends a check or mails it through electronic media. In this case, the company’s economic value is transferred to its shareholders rather than using it for further investment.

By the way, you have to pay tax if you are receiving the cash dividend from the company.

Stock dividend

It’s kind of a dividend that may refer to “To carry coal to the new castle” A company may decide to increase its number of shares instead of paying the dividend through cash. For example, if a company decides to issue a 4% stock dividend and you are a shareholder of that company owning 100 shares, you will get four additional shares.

  1. By the time of payment

Interim dividend

The word ‘interim’ refers here “in the middle of the year or less than a year.” A company usually pays dividends to its shareholders after an Annual General Meeting (AGM). Any dividend paid before AGM or termination of the company’s final profit is said to be an interim dividend. The company policy determines the time and payment decisions.

Final dividend/ Annual Dividend

The final dividend is a decision made through the Annual General Meeting by the board of directors. Generally, the company pays the dividend before preparing the final accounts in every financial year.

The amount of dividend paid to the shareholders usually remains public. It is fixed per share. Companies declare the dividends only when there enough cash remains after paying to their debtors.

Dividend yield and the stock price, Things to keep in mind!

If you are a new investor or planning to invest your money and buy shares, you need to know what dividend yield is. The dividend yield is simply an easy way to find out which stocks are paying worthwhile dividends. You can make an idea of how much yield you can expect from a stock.

The dividend yield is the ratio of the annual dividend and the stock price for a particular day. If you want to calculate the yield, you have to follow the formula:

Dividend Yield Formula

You can calculate it from the previous year’s complete financial reports. For example, suppose a company had a share price of $80, and the company’s annual dividend is $2.00, the yield would be 2.5%.

 So, why is this dividend yield essential to notice while investing in a company? While you are supporting, being informed about the yield will help you understand the expected dividend. The dividend yield is a relationship between the company’s current stock price and the annual dividend payout.

Keep in mind that dividend yield is calculated from the annual yield, not quarterly, monthly, or semi-annual.

Impact of dividend on firm valuation

The dividend is like profit, and a firm gives a dividend after several intervals. The dividend can be in cash or share. It helps to keep the balance in cash and goodwill of a firm.

Investors expect the firm to do well and have a dividend. To reduce investor’s uncertainty, the company gives them a dividend. A well-to-do firm can quickly provide a dividend to keep investors happy and satisfied. It increases the firm’s value. Dividend impacts on valuation.

On the contrary, not giving any dividend may result in a firm’s poor condition. Investors take the firm in a negative mind. Thus, valuation get downs in the market. It lowers the share price. Gordon picks up dividends effects on valuation.

Differences between dividend and buyback share

The firm gives both dividends and shares buyback opportunities only when the firm is doing very well in markets. Both are good for an investor, and the dividend holds up the value of the firm.

The investor always looks for the dividend. It keeps a good relationship between the firm and the investor. As a result, an investor invests more in the firm. Buyback share is also viral all over the world.

It allows a shareholder to increase its share number in the company. The firm gets relive of outstanding share in the market. Repurchasing shares increase EPS, increases share price, and gains capital. Giving excessive dividends and buyback shares can put down its value and end in destruction financially.

Role of dividend in financial modeling

Financial modeling consists of an income statement, cash flow statement, and balance sheet. Dividend impacts in those three parts of a financial model. Linking the statements is necessary to keep the dividends flow with correct accounts. The financial model is well layout with the assumption section.

Here you can find any return on capital decisions. Suppose a firm is going to give dividends. So there will be an assumption about the dollar value. It will flow out through retained earnings and cash flow statements. The company’s cash balance also decreases. There is always effects of dividend in financial modeling.


The new investors who plan to buy shares of a company, keeping in mind the dividend, how much it’s paying, and the dividend yield, are fundamental. Learn to observe the stock price of the companies along with their annual dividend payout. Before finally buying the share, check the ex-dividend date cause unless you are in before the ex-dividend date, you are not probably getting the dividend. This date is different for different companies. An increased dividend rate will probably attract you but don’t forget to inspect the stock rate and the yield in the present stock market.

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  • June 8, 2021

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